Dr. Mark Piper
The Piper Classification for TMJ Staging
Most classifications have not attempted to define diagnostic subgroups based upon anatomical variation of the disease process. The Piper Classification is a good working model for the entire range of TMD, from the normal joint anatomy to severely diseased soft tissues and bone structures. It is important to understand that TMD is a soft tissue disease and bone disease together, so any classification has to take into account both of these processes.